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Understand your tire

Tire manufacture – the stages

Tire components are assembled in a tire-building machine to make a 'green' tire

Rubber blend

Your tire’s rubber blend can feature up to 30 separate ingredients, with different proportions affecting the performance characteristics of the tire. During the blending process, rubbers, fillers and other essential ingredients are mixed together to create a black, sticky compound that is then ready to be milled.

Tire components are assembled in a tire-building machine to make a 'green' tire


The cooled-down rubber blend is cut into strips at a special mill. These strips will form the basic structure of the tire. Other parts of the tire are also prepared during the milling process, some of which are coated in a different type of rubber.

Tire components are assembled in a tire-building machine to make a 'green' tire

Tire width

During the building stage the tire is constructed from the inside out, with the component parts - textile elements, beads, steel belts, ply, tread, and other parts - placed in a tire-building machine that ensures every part is in the right place. The end result, know as a ‘green tire’, looks close to completion.

Tire components are assembled in a tire-building machine to make a 'green' tire


The green tire is ‘cured’ in a vulcanizing machine. This machine uses hot moulds to compress the component parts together. The tire is given its final shape during the curing stage and is stamped with its tread pattern and sidewall markings.

Tire components are assembled in a tire-building machine to make a 'green' tire


All Sava tires are thoroughly inspected before they are ready to be shipped to dealers. The inspection process involves visual checks by trained experts as well as mechanical tests that will identify even the slightest fault or potential weakness. A selection of tires will undergo X-ray checks that pick up the slightest internal problem. Other tires will be randomly selected from each batch and cut open by quality control engineers to ensure their construction meets our high standards.

The parts of a tire

Ply: Your tire’s internal ‘skeleton’ consists of layers of fabric called plies, which are made of a rubber-coated textile weave. Ply construction enables tires to be flexible, but prevents stretching. Much of the tire’s strength comes from a robust layer of ply – called the ‘carcass ply’ – next to the inner liner of the tire.

Beads: Beads create an airtight seal between your tire and the wheel rim. They are created from strong braided steel and are coated in rubber.

Belt: Your tire’s strength is reinforced by steel belts – woven sheets of steel wire, coated in rubber - which add rigidity. Some tires feature the addition of Kevlar cord to the belts for extra strength, longer life and resistance to damage.

Sidewall: The part of your tire between bead and tread. Your tire’s sidewall is made of thick rubber, which boosts the tire’s lateral stability. All tire sidewalls are also stamped with essential information about the tire, including sizing, performance characteristics and recommended inflation.

Shoulder: The beveled edge where the tread joins the sidewall is known as the tire shoulder. Shoulder design is an important factor in a tire’s cornering performance.

Tread: The wide area of softer rubber that is in contact with the road, and provides a tire’s grip and cushioning. Tread pattern design and the rubber compound used in its construction are two of the most important factors in determining how each tire behaves.

Grooves and sipes: Deep grooves between the tread blocks play a key role in allowing your tire to shed water, mud and snow. Small slits in the tread blocks know as sipes are designed to deliver extra grip. Grooving and siping patterns are especially important in tires designed for tough conditions, e.g. winter tires.

Rib: The solid line running down the centre of the tire is called the rib. Its job is to provide the tire with additional reinforcement.